During the energy generation process, excess heat must be expelled via Cooling Water Systems, involving pipelines and various types of heat exchange processes. Aging systems and dangerous environments mean that traditional forms of leak detection just won't work.
In 2012, St. Louis, MO (Metropolitan St. Louis Sewer District) set a record for the most expensive sewer consent decree in history at $4.7 BILLION to be spent over the next 23 years. The cause of this consent decree and the cause of most consent decrees are overflow events that allow untreated waste into the nearby lakes, streams, river, or other nature areas.
Bridges have been used throughout history to solve problems related to crossing an obstacle or getting past difficult terrain. They are essential for moving goods, people and connecting the country. Currently, most of the nation's bridges are in poor condition and continue to deteriorate as time passes.
With populations rising throughout towns and cities in the United States there is a growing need to improve the nation's water and wastewater infrastructures. Reliable water provisions are needed for continued development and sustenance.
A 2014 Department of Transportation report finds that to maintain the condition of U.S. highways and bridges at 2010 levels through the year 2030, between $65.3 billion and $86.3 billion per year would be required.